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Objectives:
  1. Describe what is meant by personality, and explain how Freud’s treatment of psychological disorders led to the study of the unconscious.
  2. Describe Freud’s key ideas including:
  • The interactions of the id, ego, and superego
  • The psychosexual stages of development
  • The effects of fixation on behavior
  • How defense mechanisms protect the individual from anxiety
  1. Describe how projective tests are used to assess personality.
  2. Discuss the contributions of the neo-Freudians, and describe the shortcomings of Freud’s ideas.
  3. Describe the humanistic perspective on personality in terms of Maslow’s focus on self-actualization and Rogers’ emphasis on people’s potential for growth.
  4. Describe humanistic psychologist’s approach to personality assessment, and discuss the criticisms of the humanistic perspective.
  5. Discuss psychologist’s descriptions of personality types and describe efforts to identify fundamental personality traits.
  6. Explain how personality inventories are used to assess traits, and identify the “Big Five” trait dimensions.
  7. Discuss research regarding the consistency of behavior over time and across situations.
  8. Describe the social-cognitive perspective, and discuss the important consequences of personal control, learned helplessness, and optimism.
  9. Describe how social-cognitive researchers assess behavior in realistic situations, and evaluate the social-cognitive perspective on personality.
  10. Describe psychology’s interest in people’s sense of self, and discuss the benefits and liabilities of self-esteem and self-serving pride.
  11. Describe the impact of individualism and collectivism on self-identity and social relations.
  12. Identify examples of nonconscious information processing highlighted by contemporary research.

Key Terms and Key People:
Personality, free association, psychoanalysis, unconscious, id, ego, superego, psychosexual stages, Oedipus complex, identification, fixation, defense mechanisms, repression, regression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, displacement, projective test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Rorschach inkblot test, collective unconscious, self-actualization, unconditional positive regard, self-concept, trait, personality inventory, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), empirically derived test, social-cognitive perspective, reciprocal determinism, personal control, external locus of control, internal locus of control, learned helplessness, positive psychology, spotlight effect, self-esteem, self-serving bias, individualism, collectivism, terror-management theory.

Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Hermann Rorschach, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Isabel Briggs Meyers


Humanetrics: A test based on Carl Jung & Isabell Myers Briggs theory

A comparison of Keirsey Temperament & Myers Briggs

Keirsey Temperament Test

New Study Throws Doubt into the Big 5 Theory (APA)

The Big 5 Personality Test

The Big 5 Interactive

The Do-Re-Mi's of Personality

The Personality Project

The Freud Museum

The Power of Introverts: Susan Cain's website